OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

You are here

Deicing Salt – Concrete Pavement Interaction Bibliography

L. Berntsson, and S. Chandra, Damage of concrete sleepers by calcium chloride, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 12, pp. 87–92 (1982). 

U.A. Birnin-Yauri, S. Garba, and S. O. Okeniyi, Effect of mechanism of chloride ion attack on portland cement concrete and the structure steel reinforcement, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 5–8 (2007).

P. Brown, and J. Bothe Jr., The system CaO–Al2O3–CaCl2–H2O at 23±2 °C and the mechanisms of chloride binding in concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, pp.1549–1553 (2004). 

S. Chatterji, Mechanism of the CaCl2 attack on portland cement concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 8, pp. 461–467 (1978).

M. Collepardi, L. Coppola, and C. Pistolesi, Durability of concrete structures exposed to CaCl2 based deicing salts, Durability of Concrete, ACI SP-145, 3rd CANMET/ACI International Conference, Nice (France), pp. 107–120, May 1994.

D. Damidot, U.A. Birnin-Yauri, and F.P. Glasser, Thermodynamic investigation of the CaO–Al2O3–CaCl2–H2O system at 25 °C and the influence of Na2O, Il Cemento, Vol. 91, pp. 243–254 (1994).

T. Demediuk, W.F. Cole, and H.V. Hueber, Studies on magnesium and calcium oxychlorides, Australian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 8, pp. 215–233 (1955).

H.S. Esmaeeli, Y. Farnam, D. Bentz, P.D. Zavattieri, and J. Weiss, Numerical simulation of the freeze-thaw behavior of mortar containing deicing salt solution, Submitted to Materials and Structures (2015). 

Y. Farnam, D. Bentz, A. Hampton, and J. Weiss, Acoustic emission and low-temperature calorimetry study of freeze and thaw behavior in cementitious materials exposed to sodium chloride salt, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2441, pp. 81-90 (2014). 

Y. Farnam, D. Bentz, A. Sakulich, D. Flynn, and J. Weiss, Measuring freeze and thaw damage in mortars containing deicing salt using a low-temperature longitudinal guarded comparative calorimeter and acoustic emission (AE-LGCC), Advances in Civil Engineering Materials, Vol. 3, pp. 316–337 (2014).

Y. Farnam, S. Dick, A. Wiese, J. Davis, D. Bentz, and J. Weiss, The influence of calcium chloride deicing salt on phase changes and damage development in cementitious materials, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 64, pp. 1-15 (2015).

Y. Farnam, H. Todak, R. Spragg, and J. Weiss, Electrical response of mortar with different degrees of saturation and deicing salt solutions during freezing and thawing, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 59, pp. 49-59 (2015).

Y. Farnam, C. Villani, T. Washington, M. Spence, J. Jain, and J. Weiss, Performance of carbonated calcium silicate based cement pastes and mortars exposed to NaCl and MgCl2 deicing salt, Construction and Building Materials (2016). 

Y. Farnam, T. Washington, and J. Weiss, The influence of calcium chloride salt solution on the transport properties of cementitious materials, Advances in Civil Engineering, Vol. 2015, pp. 1-13 (2015).

Y. Farnam, A. Wiese, D. Bentz, J. Davis, and J. Weiss, Damage development in cementitious materials exposed to magnesium chloride deicing salt, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 93, pp. 384-392 (2015).

Y. Farnam, D. Bentz, A. Hampton, and J. Weiss, Acoustic emission and low temperature calorimetry study of freeze and thaw behavior in cementitious materials exposed to NaCl salt, Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, pp. 1–19, January 2014. 

Y. Farnam, D. Bentz, A. Sakulich, D. Flynn, and J. Weiss, Evaluation of freeze and thaw damage in mortars containing deicing salt using a low temperature guarded comparative longitudinal calorimeter and acoustic emission, 4th Advances in Cement-based Materials: Characterization, Processing, Modeling and Sensing, Urbana (IL), July 2013.

Y. Farnam, D. Bentz, A. Sakulich, D. Flynn, and J. Weiss, Using acoustic emission to quantify damage in cementitious materials exposed to freezing and thawing, AEWG 55th conference on Acoustic Emission, Anaheim/Los Angeles (CA), June 2013.

Y. Farnam, H.S. Esmaeeli, D. Bentz, P. Zavattieri, and J. Weiss, Experimental and numerical investigation on the effect of cooling/heating rate on the freeze-thaw behavior of mortar containing deicing salt solution, International Conference on the Regeneration and Conservation of Concrete Structures (RCCS), Nagasaki (Japan), pp. 1-12, June 2015. 

Y. Farnam, H. Todak, R. Spragg, and J. Weiss, Using acoustic emission and electrical resistivity to assess freeze-thaw damage in concrete, AEWG 57th Conference on Acoustic Emission, Chicago (IL), May 2015.

Y. Farnam, and J. Weiss, A new look at an old problem: reexamining the saltwater phase diagrams to better describe concrete durability, 2015 American Concrete Institute Spring Convention, Kansas City (MO), April 2015.

Y. Farnam, and J. Weiss, Service-life and freeze-thaw deterioration: what classic phase diagrams tell us and where they fall short for cements, Anna Maria Workshop XV: Durability and Service-Life Prediction, Anna Maria (FL), November 2014. 

I. Galan, L. Perron, and F.P. Glasser, Impact of chloride-rich environments on cement paste mineralogy, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 68, pp. 174–183 (2015).  

H. Justnes, A review of chloride binding in cementitious systems, Nordic Concrete Research Publications, Vol. 21 pp. 48–63 (1998).

D. Harris, Y. Farnam, R. Spragg, P. Imbrock, and J. Weiss, Early detection of joint distress in portland cement concrete pavements, Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, SPR 3623, 2015.

W. Jones, Y. Farnam, P. Imbrock, J. Sprio, C. Villani, J Olek, and J Weiss, An overview of joint deterioration in concrete pavement: mechanisms, solution properties, and sealers, Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, 2013.

G.A. Julio-Betancourt, Effect of de-icers and anti-icer chemicals on the durability, microstructure, and properties of cement-based materials, University of Toronto, 2009. 

S.Z. Makarov, and I.I. Vol’nov, Figure 2061-System Ca(OH)2CaCl2H2O, Phase Diagrams of Ceramics (Vol. 1), American Ceramic Society, Westerville (OH), p. 567, 1964. 

J. Marchand, E.J. Sellevold, and M. Pigeon, The deicer salt scaling deterioration of concrete - an overview, Third International Conference on the Durability of Concrete, Nice (France), pp. 1–46, May 1994.

H. Mori, R. Kuga, S. Ogawa, and Y. Kubo, Chemical deterioration of hardened cement pastes immersed in calcium chloride solution, 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies (SCMT3), Kyoto (Japan), August 2013.

J. Liu, F. Xing, B. Dong, H. Ma, and D. Pan, Study on water sorptivity of the surface layer of concrete, Materials and Structures, Vol. 47, pp. 1941–1951 (2014).

R.W. Muethel, Investigation of calcium hydroxide depletion as a cause of concrete pavement deterioration, Report R-1353, 1997.

J. Monical, E. Unal, T. Barrett, Y. Farnam, and J. Weiss, Reducing joint damage in concrete pavements: quantifying calcium oxychloride formation for concrete made using portland cement, portland limestone cement, supplementary cementitious materials, and sealers, Submitted to Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2015).

J. Monical, C. Villani, Y. Farnam, E. Unal, and J. Weiss, Using low temperature differential scanning calorimetry to quantify calcium oxychloride formation for cementitious materials in the presence of CaCl2, Accepted in Advances in Civil Engineering Materials (2015).

K. Peterson, G. Julio-Betancourt, L. Sutter, R.D. Hooton, and D. Johnston, Observations of chloride ingress and calcium oxychloride formation in laboratory concrete and mortar at 5°C, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 45, pp.79–90 (2013).

O. Peterson, Chemical attack of strong chloride solutions on concrete: Does experience confirm that different chloride salts may influence concrete in different ways?, Report TVBM, 1984.

M. Pigeon, and M. Regourd, The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the microstructure of hydration products, Durability of Building Materials, Vol. 4, pp. 1–19 (1986).

Y. Qian, Y. Farnam, and J. Weiss, Using acoustic emission to quantify freeze-thaw damage of mortar saturated with NaCl solutions, 4th International Conference on the Durability of Concrete Structures, West Lafayette (IN), pp. 1-7, July 2014.

C. Shi, Formation and stability of 3CaO.CaCl2.12H2O, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 31, pp. 1373–1375 (2001). 

X. Shi, L. Fay, M.M. Peterson, M. Berry, and M. Mooney, A FESEM/EDX investigation into how continuous deicer exposure affects the chemistry of Portland cement concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, pp. 957–966 (2011).

X. Shi, L. Fay, M.M. Peterson, and Z. Yang, Freeze–thaw damage and chemical change of a portland cement concrete in the presence of diluted deicers, Materials and Structures, Vol. 43, pp. 933–946 (2010). 

X. Shi, Y. Liu, M. Mooney, M. Berry, B. Hubbard, L. Fay, and A.B. Leonard, Effect of chloride-based deicers on reinforced concrete structures, Report No. WA-RD 741.1, 2010.

E.S. Sumsion, and W.S. Guthrie, Physical and chemical effects of deicers on concrete pavement: literature review, Report UT-13.09, 2013.

P. Suraneni, V.J. Azad, O.B. Isgor, and W.J. Weiss, Deicing salts and durability of concrete pavements and joints, Concrete International, Vol. 38, pp. 48–54 (2016).

P. Suraneni, V.J. Azad, O.B. Isgor, and W.J. Weiss, Calcium oxychloride formation in pastes containing supplementary cementitious materials: Thoughts on the role of cement and supplementary cementitious materials reactivityRILEM Technical Letters, Vol. 1, pp. 24–30 (2016).

P. Suraneni, N. Salgado, H. Carolan, C. Li, V. Azad, B. Isgor, J. Ideker, J. Weiss, Mitigation of deicer damage in concrete pavements caused by calcium oxychloride formation – Use of ground lightweight aggregates, Materials, Systems and Structures in Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark), August 2016.

P. Taylor, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, Conclusions from the investigation of deterioration of joints in concrete pavements, RILEM Technical Letters, InTrans Project Report, Paper 183, 2016.

L. Sutter, K. Peterson, S. Touton, T. Van Dam, and D. Johnston, Petrographic evidence of calcium oxychloride formation in mortars exposed to magnesium chloride solution, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, pp. 1533–1541 (2006). 

L. Sutter, K. Peterson, G. Julio-Betancourt, D. Hooton, T.V. Dam, and K. Smith, The deleterious chemical effects of concentrated deicing solutions on Portland cement concrete, Final Report for the South Dakota Department of Transportation, 2008.

H. Todak, C. Lucero, and J. Weiss, Why is the air there? Thinking about freeze-thaw in terms of saturation, Concrete inFocus, pp. 3–7 (2015).

H. Todak, M. Tsui, and J. Weiss, Evaluating freeze-thaw damage in concrete with acoustic emissions and acousto-ultrasonics, World Conference on Acoustic Emission, Oahu (HI), November 2015.

C. Villani, Y. Farnam, T. Washington, J. Jain, and J. Weiss, Performance of conventional portland cement and calcium silicate based carbonated cementitious systems during freezing and thawing in the presence of calcium chloride deicing salts, Transportation Research Board 94rd Annual Meeting, Washington (DC), pp. 1–16, January 2015.

C. Villani, Y. Farnam, T. Washington, J. Jain, and J. Weiss, Performance of conventional portland cement and carbonated calcium silicate-based cement systems during freezing and thawing in the presence of calcium chloride deicing salts, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2508, pp. 48-54 (2015).

I.I. Vol’nov, and E.I. Latysheva, Separation of calcium chloride from Solvay spent liquor through calcium hydroxichloride, Journal of Applied Chemistry of the USSR, Vol. 30, pp. 1039–1046 (1957).

A. Wiese, Y. Farnam, W. Jones, P. Imbrock, B. Tao, and J. Weiss, Evaluation of sealers and water proofers for extending the life cycle of concrete, Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, SPR 3523, 2015.

To update content on this page, contact Prannoy Suraneni, postdoctoral researcher.